Spotlight on Alcohol abuse and its neurologic complications

The topic of alcohol abuse related to acute and chronic exposure covers a wide spectrum of neurologic syndromes involving the central and peripheral nervous system. In this article, Dr. Kelly Devers of the University of South Florida and Deputy Chief Medical Examiner for Hillsborough County discusses historical perspectives, clinical manifestations, clinical vignettes, etiology, pathogenesis, pathophysiology, epidemiology, prognosis, complications, and management of this complex disorder of the brain. In addition, Dr. Devers discusses select mechanisms of cellular injury by alcohol.

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Twitter Digest for August 21, 2019

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Spotlight on Craniopharyngioma

Craniopharyngioma is a rare histologically low-grade (WHO grade 1) suprasellar tumor believed to originate from Rathke s pouch. It occurs in adamantinomatous and papillary subtypes. Consistent with its location, patients experience visual abnormalities, symptoms of increased intracranial pressure, and endocrine dysfunction. If the tumor is favorably located, the most effective treatment is adequate resection.

In this article, the authors present the protean clinical manifestations, suspected pathogenesis, and currently available treatment options for craniopharyngioma, with emphasis on the importance of a multidisciplinary approach. Genetic analysis has shown that adamantinomatous and papillary craniopharyngiomas have distinct tumor biology. Adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas demonstrate activating mutations in the gene encoding beta-catenin. On the other hand, the majority of papillary craniopharyngiomas harbor the oncogenic BRAF V600E substitution, which can be used as a confirmatory test using immunochemistry and shows promise as targeted therapy in selected patients.

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Twitter Digest for August 16, 2019

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Spotlight on Myoclonus

In this article, Dr. John Caviness of the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine presents an overview of myoclonus with an emphasis on differential diagnosis, etiology, and treatment.

Myoclonus occurs as a symptom or sign in numerous diseases and conditions, necessitating an organized approach to diagnostic evaluation. Noting the clinical circumstances that surround the myoclonus is key. The first step in focusing on the myoclonus is to determine its category of clinical classification. Subsequent phases of testing can then be added as necessary. The physiological classification of myoclonus compliments the other information for diagnostic purposes. Once the diagnosis is determined, treatment of the underlying cause or symptomatic treatment of the myoclonus can be undertaken. For this update, the author has organized the treatment of myoclonus according to its pathophysiology with new treatment information added. This includes instances where deep brain stimulation or botulinum toxin injection may treat myoclonus.

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Twitter Digest for August 14, 2019

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