There is a well-recognized association between cancer and myositis, mainly seen in classic dermatomyositis, amyopathic dermatomyositis, and immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy.
Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, referred to as “myositis,” can be associated with cancer. Classic dermatomyositis, amyopathic dermatomyositis, and, to lesser extent, polymyositis are the most highly affected myositis phenotypes, whereas immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy has been linked to cancer as a paraneoplastic phenomenon. Cancer-associated myositis is defined as the concomitant presence of the 2 diseases within a 3-year period. However, a paraneoplastic pattern—that is, when cancer abates, myositis disappears and when malignancy recurs, myositis returns—is not always observed.
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