Spotlight on Lennox-Gastaut syndrome

In this article, Dr. Mary Spiciarich and Dr. Solomon Moshe of Albert Einstein College of Medicine discuss Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, which is diagnosed in individuals with intractable epilepsy characterized by multiple seizure types, slow spike-wave pattern on EEG, and cognitive deterioration typically after first seizure onset. Seizure types include tonic seizures that mainly occur in sleep, atonic seizures, atypical absences, and myoclonic seizures. The condition may follow West syndrome but has also been associated with various genetic and neurocutaneous syndromes, metabolic diseases, and early infectious or ischemic insults or may have an unknown etiology. Numerous interventions as well as medications have been studied in treating this condition. Clobazam has been studied in controlling drop attacks and cannabidiol is being researched as an adjunctive antiepileptic agent in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and other intractable epilepsy syndromes.

To view the complete article, click here and log in.

Spotlight on Eyelid myoclonia with and without absences

Eyelid myoclonia with or without absences is a form of epileptic seizure manifesting with myoclonic jerks of the eyelids, often with brief absences. These seizures are mainly precipitated by lights and closing of the eyes. They occur in symptomatic, possibly symptomatic, and idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Most authors support the view that eyelid myoclonia with absences is the defining seizure type of an idiopathic syndrome (Jeavons syndrome) of reflex epilepsy, which is genetically determined, has age-related onset, and affects otherwise normal children, with a female preponderance. Jeavons syndrome is probably lifelong with continuing seizures in adult life. Eyelid myoclonia is often confused with facial tics or self-induction of seizures.

In this article, Dr. C P Panayiotopoulos of St. Thomas’ Hospital details developments in the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, genetics, and pharmacological treatment of eyelid myoclonia with absences.

To view the complete article, click here and log in.