Spotlight on Chronic traumatic encephalopathy

Traumatic encephalopathy refers to a specific pathology found in the brains of people with a history of traumatic brain injury. Although first recognized as a clinical entity in the early 20th century, it has become a hotly-debated topic in both the scientific and sporting communities over the past decade.

In this article, Dr. Jason Weller, Katherine Turk, and Andrew E Budson, all of the Boston VA Healthcare System and Boston University School of Medicine, provide a look into its history and epidemiology as well as a summary of current research into the evaluation, diagnosis, and management of this neurodegenerative disease.

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Spotlight on Right hemisphere language disorders

In this article, Dr. Alia Martin of Victoria University of Wellington describes language and communication deficits associated with right hemisphere brain damage due to, for example, cerebrovascular accident or traumatic brain injury. Topics include nonliteral language, such as metaphor and irony, humor, and theory of mind. In addition to symptom descriptions, Dr. Martin presents a historical background, points out that impairments associated with right hemisphere brain damage extend beyond just communication, and describes some approaches to treatment. She also presents evidence that the intact right hemisphere makes substantial contributions to communication, but the strong claim that the right hemisphere is “dominant” for specific language functions is not well supported.

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Spotlight on Traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage

Intracerebral hemorrhage is a common complication of traumatic brain injury. Traumatic brain injuries can be classified into 3 major groups: closed head injury, penetrating injury, and explosive blast injury. Blast injuries appear to have a high risk for traumatic pseudoaneurysm formation. Differentiation between an intracerebral hemorrhage and hemorrhagic contusion is difficult. Intracranial hemorrhage in patients with traumatic brain injury results in poor neurologic outcomes and high mortality.Traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage, like spontaneous hemorrhage, often expands over time. Coagulopathies are common in patients with severe head injuries and contribute to the hematoma formation. Effective neurocritical care coupled with timely and appropriate neurosurgical intervention can significantly improve outcome. Intracranial pressure monitoring helps reduce the overall mortality in these patients. In this clinical summary, Dr. Ravindra Kumar Garg of King George’s Medical University in Lucknow, India, discusses the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, impact on outcome, and available treatments for traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage.

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MedLink Neurology authors are always at work to bring you broad and up-to-date coverage of neurology topics. We are pleased to highlight clinical summaries that have been recently added or updated and to introduce the authors who write these authoritative articles. We hope you enjoy these overviews and appreciate the contributions of our more than 450 authors who keep MedLink Neurology the premier information resource for neurologists.