Limb dystonia is a type of dystonia consisting of involuntary contractions of the arms or legs associated with abnormal posturing, repetitive movements, and functional impairment. Limb dystonia is classified as primary if dystonia is the only presenting symptom or as secondary if associated with additional neurologic signs and an underlying cause is identified or suspected. Writer’s cramp is the most common task-specific upper limb dystonia. Limb dystonia may be the initial presenting sign in neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal ganglionic degeneration.
In this article, Dr. Corneliu Luca and Dr. Carlos Singer of the University of Miami review current knowledge on limb dystonias. They review updates on the classification, genetics, and pathophysiology of limb dystonia. The main clinical features of limb dystonia together with advances in the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of limb dystonia are also reviewed.
To view the complete article, click here and log in.