Spotlight on Acquired human cytomegalovirus

Human cytomegalovirus, also known as human herpesvirus 5, is a common pathogen that infects a majority of the adult population. After acute infection, the virus remains in a latent state but can reactivate to generate viremia or viruria, typically in the setting of immune system dysfunction. Human cytomegalovirus infection in immunocompetent hosts is often asymptomatic or self-limited whereas immunocompromised individuals can experience a more severe, life-threatening clinical course. Human cytomegalovirus infection can have a variety of clinical neurologic presentations, including retinitis, encephalitis, or radiculitis, and has also been implicated in cancer and vascular disease in immunocompetent individuals. Diagnosis is made through serological testing and molecular assays among individuals with a compatible clinical presentation, and current treatments are typically effective at controlling clinical symptoms.

In this article, Dr. Diana Vargas, Taylor Harrison, and Dr. William Tyor of Emory University School of Medicine discuss the manifestations, diagnosis, and management of human cytomegalovirus infection, which is a public health concern due to its widespread prevalence and the increasing number of immunosuppressed individuals.

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Spotlight on Congenital cytomegalovirus

Cytomegalovirus is a ubiquitous agent responsible for most intrauterine infections. Besides well-known symptoms and findings such as hearing loss and microcephaly, congenital cytomegalovirus infection can also underlie certain cerebral anomalies and static leukodystrophies.

In this article, Dr.Elena Grebenciucova of Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and Dr. Raymond Roos of the University of Chicago Medical Center discuss uncommon presentations of asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus, predicted outcomes of congenital multi-strain cytomegalovirus infection, and updates on potential cytomegalovirus vaccines.

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Spotlight on Neuropathies associated with cytomegalovirus infection

Cytomegalovirus is the most common cause of polyradiculopathy in AIDS. It occurs in about 2% of HIV-infected patients referred to neurologists. Expeditious diagnosis is crucial, as this disease may progress rapidly to death, but does respond to antiviral therapy when started early.

In this clinical summary, Dr. Singh of the University of Missouri – Columbia and Dr. Thomas of St. Louis University and the St. Louis VA Regional MS Center of Excellence provide an overview of neuropathies associated with cytomegalovirus infection.

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MedLink Neurology authors are always at work to bring you broad and up-to-date coverage of neurology topics. We are pleased to highlight clinical summaries that have been recently added or updated and to introduce the authors who write these authoritative articles. We hope you enjoy these overviews and appreciate the contributions of our more than 450 authors who keep MedLink Neurology the premier information resource for neurologists.

Spotlight on Acquired cytomegalovirus

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous agent acquired by the majority of the population. It usually resides in a latent state but can reactivate to generate viremia or viruria. Multiple clinical scenarios are associated with human cytomegalovirus infection. Human cytomegalovirus infection typically becomes symptomatic with immune suppression, and HCMV reactivation can be a sentinel of immune system dysfunction. Patients with HIV coinfection and recipients of transplants are the patient groups most often affected by serious or life-threatening human cytomegalovirus disease. However, human cytomegalovirus effects on the immune system or cell regulation have been implicated in cancer and vascular disease as well. Human cytomegalovirus infection may confer a higher risk for atherosclerosis and stroke, even in immunocompetent individuals.

In this clinical summary, Dr. Micheline McCarthy of the Miami VA Medical Center discusses the manifestations, diagnosis, and management of acquired cytomegalovirus.

To view the complete clinical summary, click here.

MedLink Neurology authors are always at work to bring you broad and up-to-date coverage of neurology topics. We are pleased to highlight clinical summaries that have been recently added or updated and to introduce the authors who write these authoritative articles. We hope you enjoy these overviews and appreciate the contributions of our more than 450 authors who keep MedLink Neurology the premier information resource for neurologists.