Spotlight on Psychogenic (functional) movement disorders

Psychogenic movement disorders represent a challenge for the clinical practitioner, as the diagnosis and treatment are usually difficult and the prognosis may be poor in some patients. Sometimes also referred to as “functional,” “conversion,” or “psychogenic,” these disorders must be differentiated from “organic” disorders. Psychogenic movement disorders may have several presentations, including tremor, dystonia, myoclonus, tics, parkinsonism, gait disorders, hemifacial spasm, opsoclonus, oculogyric crisis, painful legs, moving toes, etc. and are not uncommonly accompanied by psychogenic speech and voice disorders.

In this article, Dr. Jose Fidel Baizabal-Carvallo of Baylor College of Medicine discusses current advances in the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of psychogenic movement disorders.

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Spotlight on Oromandibular dystonia

Oromandibular dystonia is a form of focal dystonia manifested by jaw closure often associated with clenching of the jaws and grinding of teeth (bruxism) and may lead to temporal-mandibular joint syndrome. Other forms of oromandibular dystonia include jaw opening and deviation. Dr. Jankovic of Baylor College of Medicine discusses the cause of this dystonia and its management, focusing on botulinum toxin injections, the treatment of choice.

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MedLink Neurology authors are always at work to bring you broad and up-to-date coverage of neurology topics. We are pleased to highlight clinical summaries that have been recently added or updated and to introduce the authors who write these authoritative articles. We hope you enjoy these overviews and appreciate the contributions of our more than 450 authors who keep MedLink Neurology the premier information resource for neurologists.

Spotlight on Acute drug-induced movement disorders

The term “acute drug-induced movement disorders” refers primarily to acute dystonic reactions and akathisia. Although it is generally believed that drug-induced movement disorders are much less common in the era of atypical antipsychotic drugs, there is little data to support this contention. Both acute and nonacute extrapyramidal disorders do still occur, so neurologists and psychiatrists should be able to recognize and treat them. In this clinical summary, Dr. Joseph Friedman of the Alpert Medical School of Brown University discusses the extrapyramidal side effects seen with all first generation, and most second generation, antipsychotic drugs and how akathisia may be mistaken for other conditions, including restless legs, increased psychosis, or anxiety.

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MedLink Neurology authors are always at work to bring you broad and up-to-date coverage of neurology topics. We are pleased to highlight clinical summaries that have been recently added or updated and to introduce the authors who write these authoritative articles. We hope you enjoy these overviews and appreciate the contributions of our more than 450 authors who keep MedLink Neurology the premier information resource for neurologists.

Spotlight on Idiopathic torsion dystonia

Idiopathic torsion dystonia is characterized by onset of dystonia, usually starting in the feet, in children 6 to 9 years of age. These children are typically normal in their development and walk normally. The dystonia spreads to involve the proximal lower limbs, trunk, upper limbs, neck, and cranial structures to various degrees. In this clinical summary, Dr. Mary Ann Thenganatt of the Parkinson’s Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic at Baylor College of Medicine discusses the manifestations, etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of idiopathic torsion dystonia.

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MedLink Neurology authors are always at work to bring you broad and up-to-date coverage of neurology topics. We are pleased to highlight clinical summaries that have been recently added or updated and to introduce the authors who write these authoritative articles. We hope you enjoy these overviews and appreciate the contributions of our more than 450 authors who keep MedLink Neurology the premier information resource for neurologists.

Spotlight on Peripheral dystonia

Peripheral dystonia is defined as sustained muscle contractions, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements, or abnormal postures triggered by trauma to the peripheral or cranial nerves. Although a cause-and-effect relationship between central nervous system injury and subsequent dystonia is well established, the existence of such a relationship following peripheral injury is still a subject of controversy. There is increasing evidence, largely from clinical reports based on a strong temporal-anatomical relationship, supporting the association between peripheral nerve trauma and dystonia.

In this clinical summary, Dr. Corneliu Luca and Dr. Carlos Singer of the University of Miami discuss the mechanisms and the clinical characteristics of peripherally induced movement disorders and address the controversies existent in the field. This review focuses on the following fundamental questions: (1) What are possible underlying mechanisms of peripherally induced dystonia? (2) What factors predict or predispose an individual to the development of dystonia following peripheral injury? (3) What are the clinical characteristics of dystonic movements in peripheral dystonia compared to primary dystonia? (4) What are the prognoses and long-term outcomes in patients with peripheral dystonia?

To view the complete clinical summary, click here.

MedLink Neurology authors are always at work to bring you broad and up-to-date coverage of neurology topics. We are pleased to highlight clinical summaries that have been recently added or updated and to introduce the authors who write these authoritative articles. We hope you enjoy these overviews and appreciate the contributions of our more than 450 authors who keep MedLink Neurology the premier information resource for neurologists.