Spotlight on Early myoclonic encephalopathy

Early myoclonic encephalopathy is an epileptic encephalopathy syndrome with onset either in the neonatal period or within the first 3 months of life, characterized by erratic, fragmentary, or massive myoclonus, focal seizures, and late tonic spasms. The prognosis is severe. Early myoclonic encephalopathy and Ohtahara syndrome together are recognized as 2 of the epileptic encephalopathies seen in early infancy and characterized by suppression burst on electroencephalogram.

In this updated article, Dr. Jules Beal of Weill Cornell Medicine and New York-Presbyterian Queens Hospital and Dr. Solomon Moshé of Albert Einstein College of Medicine review the clinical and neurophysiological data, management, and etiologic factors. Early myoclonic encephalopathy is believed to have various prenatal etiologies that often remain unknown; inborn errors of metabolism and genetic disorders are sometimes found.

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Spotlight on Focal sensory seizures with experiential symptoms

In this article, Dr. Fernando Cendes of the University of Campinas – UNICAMP in Brazil discusses experiential symptoms that sometimes occur in the course of seizures.

At the most fundamental level, experiential symptoms are illusions or hallucinations that result in erroneous interpretations of the present experience. Frequent types of experiential symptoms include sensations of déjà-vu or jamais-vu, episodes of disorienting hyperfamiliarity, and a variety of out-of-body experiences termed “autoscopy.” If epileptic in origin, experiential symptoms occur almost exclusively during the course of temporal lobe epilepsy. Experiential phenomena can occur in healthy individuals, in the context of psychiatric disease, or during the aura phase of migraine headache and have been associated with mass lesions or inflammatory conditions of the temporal lobe.

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