Spotlight on Medical complications of stroke

Medical complications following stroke account for significant morbidity and mortality. These clinical conditions need to be recognized and managed effectively for a more favorable outcome. Direct effects of ischemic stroke, like hemorrhagic conversion or cerebral edema, account for the majority of deaths within the first week, but other medical complications that include cardiac causes (arrhythmias, myocardial infarction), infections (pneumonia, urosepsis), and venous thromboembolism account for at least 50% of mortality thereafter. In this clinical summary, Dr. Adrian Marchidann of SUNY Downstate Health Science Center discusses the medical complications of stroke-related deficits, their workup, and treatment modalities. Venous thromboembolism care information was updated according to the 9th edition of the American College of Chest Physicians guidelines.

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MedLink Neurology authors are always at work to bring you broad and up-to-date coverage of neurology topics. We are pleased to highlight clinical summaries that have been recently added or updated and to introduce the authors who write these authoritative articles. We hope you enjoy these overviews and appreciate the contributions of our more than 450 authors who keep MedLink Neurology the premier information resource for neurologists.

Spotlight on Traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage

Intracerebral hemorrhage is a common complication of traumatic brain injury. Traumatic brain injuries can be classified into 3 major groups: closed head injury, penetrating injury, and explosive blast injury. Blast injuries appear to have a high risk for traumatic pseudoaneurysm formation. Differentiation between an intracerebral hemorrhage and hemorrhagic contusion is difficult. Intracranial hemorrhage in patients with traumatic brain injury results in poor neurologic outcomes and high mortality.Traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage, like spontaneous hemorrhage, often expands over time. Coagulopathies are common in patients with severe head injuries and contribute to the hematoma formation. Effective neurocritical care coupled with timely and appropriate neurosurgical intervention can significantly improve outcome. Intracranial pressure monitoring helps reduce the overall mortality in these patients. In this clinical summary, Dr. Ravindra Kumar Garg of King George’s Medical University in Lucknow, India, discusses the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, impact on outcome, and available treatments for traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage.

To view the complete clinical summary, click here.

MedLink Neurology authors are always at work to bring you broad and up-to-date coverage of neurology topics. We are pleased to highlight clinical summaries that have been recently added or updated and to introduce the authors who write these authoritative articles. We hope you enjoy these overviews and appreciate the contributions of our more than 450 authors who keep MedLink Neurology the premier information resource for neurologists.

Spotlight on Thalamic hemorrhage

The thalamus is particularly vulnerable to non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhages. Due to its participation in a large number of neuroanatomic loops, a rich and complex spectrum of clinical abnormalities and clinicopathological correlations occurs when bleeding involves this midline paired structure. In this updated clinical summary, Dr. Julien Bogousslavsky of the Genolier Swiss Medical Network and Dr. Jorge Moncayo-Gaete of the Hospital de los Valles in Quito, Ecuador thoroughly address the clinical spectrum, epidemiology, etiology, diagnostic workup, and the latest medical and surgical treatment options for thalamic hemorrhages.

To view the complete clinical summary, click here.

MedLink Neurology authors are always at work to bring you broad and up-to-date coverage of neurology topics. We are pleased to highlight clinical summaries that have been recently added or updated and to introduce the authors who write these authoritative articles. We hope you enjoy these overviews and appreciate the contributions of our more than 450 authors who keep MedLink Neurology the premier information resource for neurologists.

Spotlight on Lobar hemorrhage

Lobar hemorrhages occur either within the subcortical white matter or at the junction of the hemispheric gray-white matter. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy, anticoagulation, coagulopathies, fibrinolytic therapy, microbleeds, and vascular malformations are common causes; hypertension is a less common risk factor in lobar hemorrhage. Recombinant activated factor VII can limit ongoing bleeding and improve outcomes when administered within 3 hours. Surgical evacuation of hematoma is not beneficial. Hematoma size and Glasgow coma scale score are important determinants of prognosis. In this clinical summary, Dr. Ravindra Kumar Garg has reviewed in detail the various aspects of lobar intracerebral hemorrhage.

To view the complete clinical summary, click here.

MedLink Neurology authors are always at work to bring you broad and up-to-date coverage of neurology topics. We are pleased to highlight clinical summaries that have been recently added or updated and to introduce the authors who write these authoritative articles. We hope you enjoy these overviews and appreciate the contributions of our more than 450 authors who keep MedLink Neurology the premier information resource for neurologists.