Spasmodic dysphonia is a focal laryngeal dystonia. The more common adductor type typically results in strained effortful speech with breaks in phonation. Abductor spasmodic dysphonia generally causes breathy speech with voiceless pauses. The task-specific nature of this condition means that it may normalize with changes in pitch or volume or with other activities, such as laughing or yawning. Several causative genes have been identified in spasmodic dysphonia. In this article, Dr. Ainhi Ha of Westmead Hospital discusses risk factors, clinical features, pathophysiology, treatment, and updates on genetic causes.
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